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Thursday, September 12, 2019

Fusion Reactors In The World. First Fusion Reactor

Fusion Reactors In The World 

Fusion Reactors In The World.

Today, many countries are participating in fusion research. The leaders are the European Union, the United States, Russia and Japan, while China's programs are growing rapidly in Brazil, Canada and Korea. Initially, the fusion reactor in the United States and the Soviet Union has been linked to the development of nuclear weapons and the conference remained a mystery until "nuclear for peace", which was held in Geneva in 1958. The creation of Soviet tokamak research After nuclear fusion in the 1970s it became "big science". But the cost and complexity of the equipment have increased to the point that international cooperation Gay was the only opportunity to grow.

FUSION REACTOR IN THE WORLD

Since the 1970s, the beginning of commercial use of fusion energy has been postponed for 40 consecutive years. However, in very recent years, the making of this period can be shortened.

Manufactured several tokamaks, the Jet European, British and Mast Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor TFTR is also included in Princeton, United States. The international ITER project is currently under construction in Cadarache, France. This will become the biggest tokamak that will work in the year 2020. In 2030, China CFETR will be built, surpassing ITER. Meanwhile, Tokamak, an experimental superconductor from China, does research on the former.

Other types of fusion reactors - stellarators - are also popular among researchers. One of the largest, LHD, joined the Japanese National Institute for Fusion in 1998. It is used to search for the best configuration of magnetic plasma confinement. In the German Max Planck Institute, Garching for the period from 1988 to the year 2002 conducted research on Wendelstein as Reactor 7, and now on - Wendelstein 7X, whose construction lasted more than 19 years. Another stellarator TJII operated in Madrid, Spain. Plasma Physics (PPPL) at the Princeton Laboratory in the United States, where they built the first nuclear fusion reactor of this type in 1951, in 2008 it ceased construction of NCSX due to cost and funding constraints.

In addition, significant achievements have been made in the research of inertial fusion. The building was completed in March 2009, worth $ 7 billion in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), funded by the National Atomic Security Administration, the French laser megajoule (LMJ) started work in October 2014. The fusion reactor using laser distributed within a few billionths of a second approximately 2 million joules of light energy at a target size of several millimeters to initiate nuclear fusion. The main objective of NIF and LMJ is to support research on national nuclear weapons programs.

Fusion Reactors In The World. First Fusion Reactor

ITER

In 1985, the Soviet Union together with Europe, Japan and the United States proposed to build a next-generation tokamak. The work was conducted under the auspices of the IAEA. In the period from 1988 to 1990, in order that the proven the fusion could produce more energy than absorbed in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER, which also means "way" or "trip" in Latin, The draft was made. Canada and Kazakhstan part mediated by Euratom and Russia respectively.

After 6 years of ITER Council established the first complex reactor design based on physics and technology worth $ 6 billion approved. Then there is the Union of America, which moved from halving the cost and forcing the project to change. Result 3 $ billion. Worth ITER-achievement, but you can achieve a self-reliant response and positive balance of power.

In 2003, the United States once again joined the Union, and China announced its willingness to participate in it. As a result, in mid-2005, the partners agreed to build ITER at Cadarache in southern France. 10% each - the European Union and France, while Japan, China, South Korea, the United States and Russia, have halved 12.8 billion euros. Japan provides high components inherent installation costs IFMIF was targeted for 1 billion test materials and the right to erect the next test reactor. The total cost of ITER includes 10 years of construction and half of half the cost - on 20 years of operation. India became the seventh member of ITER at the end of 2005
The sequence of experiments is to begin in 2018 with the use of hydrogen to avoid the activation of magnets. Not expected before 2026 using DT plasma

Objective ITER - To develop a 500 MW (400 seconds for at least) power generation using at least 50 MW of input power.

The Dvuhgigavattnaya demo demonstration plant will mass produce electricity on a permanent basis for production. The demo conceptual design will be completed by 2017, and its construction will begin in 2024. Commencement will be held in 2033.

Fusion Reactors In The World. First Fusion Reactor

THE JET

In 1978, the European Union (Euratom, Sweden and Switzerland) has started a joint European jet project in the UK. Jet is currently the largest operating tokamak in the world. Such a reactor operates at the Japanese National Institute of Combined-60 fusion, but only jets can use deuterium-tritium fuel.

The reactor was started in 1983 and was the first experiment conducted in November 1991 for 16 mW from controlled thermonuclear fusion to 5 mW and deuterium-tritium plasma to steady power. Several experiments have been conducted to study different heating circuits and other techniques.

Further improvements in jet capacity increase concern. The mast is developed with the compact reactor jet and is part of the ITER project.

Fusion Reactors In The World. First Fusion Reactor

KASHMIR STAR

The Kashmir Star - Daejeon has the Korean Superconducting Tokamak National Institute for Fusion Studies (NFRI), which produced its first plasma in mid-2008. It is a pilot project ITER, which is the result of international cooperation. The first reactor employs the superconducting magnets Nb3Sn, the same that will be used in the ITER - Tokamak radius of 1.8 meters. During the first phase, which ended in 2012, the K-Star had to prove the feasibility of basic techniques and to achieve a plasma pulse duration of 20 seconds. In the second phase (2013-2017) long pulses of 300 s are used in its modernized H mode for highly AT-mode, And to study infection. The third phase (2018-2023) aims to achieve high performance and efficiency in long pulse mode. Demo technology testing will be done in step 4 (2023-2025). The device uses tritium DT and fuel is not able to work with.

KASHMIR DEMO

The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has been built in collaboration with the US Department of Energy and the South Korean Institute of NFRI, the K demo should be the next step towards building commercial reactors after ITER, and the first power plant to generate electricity for the power grid will be able to, ie, 1 million kWh for a few weeks. It will have a diameter of 6.65 meters and will be a blanket module generated by the project demo. The Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology of Korea plan to invest in it about one trillion Korean won ($ 941 million).

Fusion Reactors In The World. First Fusion Reactor

EAST

Chinese pilot correction superconducting Tokamak (formerly) at the Institute of Physics in China Hefei made 50 million ° C hydrogen plasma temperature and kept for 102 seconds.

TFTR

American laboratory PPPL experimental thermonuclear reactor TFTR worked from 1982 to 1997. In December 1993, he became the first TFTR magnetic tokamak, which made extensive experiments of deuterium-tritium with a plasma. In the following, the reactor produced 10.7 megawatts while controlled electricity produced, and in 1995, the temperature record was achieved for the ionized gas 510 million degrees Celsius. However, the installation breakeven fusion power was not successful, but successfully, in hardware designing ITER. The goal of making significant contributions is met.

Fusion Reactors In The World. First Fusion Reactor

LHD

The LHD at the Japanese National Institute for Nuclear Fusion in Toki, Gifu Province, was the largest stellarator in the world. The fusion reactor was initially commissioned in 1998 and has demonstrated a quality of plasma confinement, comparable to other major installations. It had reached 13.5 keV ion temperature (about 160 million ° C) and energy of 1.44 MJ.

WENDELSTEIN 7X

After a year of testing, starting by the end of 2015, the helium temperature in a short time has reached 1 million ° C. In 2016 using a 2 MW thermonuclear reactor with a hydrogen plasma, the temperature is one-quarter of a second Reached 80 million degrees Celsius. The W7 X stellarator is the largest in the world and is planned to be in continuous operation for 30 minutes. The reactor cost € 1 billion.

Fusion Reactors In The World. First Fusion Reactor

NIF

In March 2009, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was completed in the year. Using its 192 laser beam, NIF is capable of focusing 60 times more energy than any previous laser system.

COLD FUSION

In March 1989, two British researchers, American Stanley Ponce and Martin Fleischman, said that they have started a normal desktop cold fusion reactor, works at room temperature. The process involved heavy water electrolysis using a palladium electrode in which deuterium nuclei were concentrated with a high density. Researchers say that heat, which can only be explained in terms of nuclear processes, as well as there,  were side products of synthesis, including helium, tritium and neutrons. However, other experimenters failed to replicate this experience. Most of the scientific community does not believe that cold fusion reactors are real.

Fusion Reactors In The World. First Fusion Reactor

LOW ENERGY NUCLEAR REACTIONS

Started by claims of "cold fusion" research continued in low energy, nuclear reactions with some empirical support, but generally not accepted the scientific explanation. Obviously, weak atomic interactions (and not a strong force, such as in nuclear fission or synthesis) can form and are used to capture neutron Ki. Experiments include the penetration of hydrogen or deuterium through the catalytic bed and the reaction with the metal. Researchers found the energy release report. The main practical example is the reaction of hydrogen with a nickel powder with heat, the number of which more than one can give any chemical reaction.

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